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Series Circuits Lab


Objectives:

1. To apply series circuits principles.
2. To apply KVL to a series circuit.
3. To review single and double subscript voltage notation.
4. To apply the voltage divider principle.
5. To gain experience in designing resistive networks.


Equipment and Materials:
1. DC Power Supply
2. DMM
3. Prototype Board
4. Assorted Resistors


Procedure:

1. For the circuit shown in Figure 1.

A. Calculate RT, I, and the voltage drop across each resistor. Enter the values in Table 1.

B. Use KVL to calculate VC, VBD, and VDA. Enter the values in Table 1.


Figure 1: Series Circuit

2. Construct the circuit shown in Figure 1 and measure RT, I, VAB, VBC, VCD, VDE, VC, VBD, and VDA. Enter the values in Table 1. Determine the percent difference and record in Table 1. Discuss the results in your report.

Table 1: Calculated and Measured Values for Circuit of Figure 1


3. Use the voltage divider principle to calculate VA and VB for the circuit shown in Figure 2. Record values in Table 2.




Figure 2: Voltage Divider



Table 2: Calculated and Measured Values for Circuit of Figure 2


4. Construct the circuit shown in Figure 2 and measure VA and VB. Record the values in Table 2. Calculate the percent difference and record in Table 2.

5. Design a voltage divider network similar to the circuit of figure 2 to provide 6V and 8V outputs with respect to ground from a 10V supply. Used fixed 5 percent resistors (RT > 10KΩ). Draw the circuit below. Use as few resistors as possible but get as close as possible to the exact design values.

6. Construct the voltage divider network and verify your design.

7. Design a voltage divider network to provide a +5V and -5V outputs with respect to ground from a 10V supply (RT > 10KΩ). Draw the circuit below. Use fixed 5 percent resistors.

8. Construct the circuit designed above and verify its operation.

9. Design a voltage divider network to provide an output voltage continuously adjustable from 4V to 6V (4V ≤ Vout ≤ 6V) with respect to ground from a 10V supply (RT > 10KΩ). Draw the circuit below. Use fixed resistors and a potentiometer.

10. Construct the circuit above and verify its operation.


Questions and Analysis:

Below are some questions to consider in your report. You may want to add others.

1. Why were your measurements in steps 1 to 4 not exactly the same as the calculated values?

2. What percent error would make you believe that you had hooked up the circuit incorrectly?

3. How close did you get to exact design values in steps 5 to 10? What tradeoffs did you make?





Procedure & Data:

Part 1 through 4:

Use KVL to calculate the following:

Table 1a: Measured Resistor Values


Next, using the voltage divider principle the values for VA and VB were calculated. The circuit was constructed, measurements taken and recorded in Table 2a which were compared to the calculated values.



Table 2a: Measured Resistor Values




Part 5 through 9:

The voltage divider network using 6 Volts and 8 Volts with respect to earth ground was constructed with the following results.



The voltage divider network using +5 Volts and -5 Volts with respect to earth ground was constructed with the following results.



The voltage divider network using a continuously adjustable 4 Volts to 6 Volts with respect ground and a potentiometer was constructed with the following results.




Conclusion & Discoveries:

1. In steps 1 through 4 the measured values were not exactly the same as the calculated values because there is a percent of error from the resistors and from the voltmeter.

2. If the percent error was greater then 5%, I would check the circuit for other errors.

3. It was learned that Kirchhoff's Voltage Law could be used to evaluate the circuit’s performance. It was also learned that designing a circuit is very tedious when first starting. Series circuits are useful for driving voltages to separate components that require different voltages.






Electrical Engineering lab key words: KVL, Kirchhoff, resistor network, current measurement, voltage measurement, series circuit, electronics experiment, measured values, voltage divider, current divider, KCL, pot, potentiometer, variable resistor.

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